Land-Soil Management & Remediation Policy Practice (China - Shanghai) 土地土壤管理和修复政策实践(中国--上海)

September 30, 2019

Image: Shanghai Surveying & Mapping Institute

 

Soil pollution is a sensitive issue worldwide. On the legislation and practical management for soil-environmental protection, coordinated multi-leveled modes are needed with regional government as main responsibles. 

As regions face problems and also opportunities, multi-locational and international policy-practice techncal exchanges have multiple values. On 28th May, 2019, Knowledge@Terra Classrooms tested a lecture to introduce soil pollution prevention policy practice in China to the Spanish Soil Science Society and Polytechnical University of Valencia. Some sensitive international policy practice issues were exchanged in pragmatic ways. Below is a brief summary of the lecture. 

* Jian Wu, Senior engineer of Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences

* Xiaoying Liu, Natureherit Design & Consult, Expert member of Sino-EU Panel on Land & Soil (SEPLS), initiator and planner of Knowledge@Terra Classrooms

 

Soil Pollution Prevention Law of China (SPPL) is a key national law and valid for all cities, villages and areas in China. It sets up a technical system of legal guidelines, management and responsibility. Regional governments are main responsible, supervised on national level by related ministries, incl. State Council, Ministry for Ecology and Environment, Ministry for Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Ministry for Natural Resources, Ministry for Housing, Urban-Rural Development, National Forestry & Grassland Administration and other related. 

Far before the law is approved, these actions of examining soil pollution are putting forward step by step. E.g. soil testing and remediation action subsidy started in 2005 for farmers in China. Soil remediation and monitoring, site plans and pollution sources (production and recycling technologies) technologies, as well as planning, education and solutions are being discussed actively in China. 

 

 

Image source: NATUREHERIT

Shanghai World Expo sites were the first big-scale urban brownfield refurbishment in China that fulfilled integrated soil remediation and paved ways for policy guidance on soil and polluted site remediation technics and brownfield development in China. 

In the central area of the city, 5.28 km2 expo area at both sides of Huangpu River had 75% industrial use since 19th or 20th century , including shipyards, power plant, water supply factory, steel factory, harbor machinery factory , etc. To commit to the expo theme “Better City, Better Life”, Shanghai Municipal Government decided to close down or remove and upgrade  all these industrial sites for the construction of Shanghai World Expo 2010. It set up the main development body, Expo Shanghai Group, to ensure the commitment on sustainable city regeneration and human development, to implement positive environmental impacts. 

To support regulative proceeding by Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau in technical practices, Shanghai Soil Remediation Centre was set up by Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences. According to their remediation evaluation in 2005, a considerate part of these sites were polluted brownfields, mostly with heavy metals, organic pollutants and solid waste layers, from long-term and complex industrial processes . On some sites, the polluted soil layers were averagely 2-4 meter deep (City Practice Area). 

Until 2008, a large area of sealed and polluted land with more than 300,000 cubic meter of heavily polluted soils completed remediation process and was transformed  into livable urban and green areas. After the celebrated World Expo in 2010, starting from 2012, the Expo Shanghai Group published a number of high value World Expo afteruse regeneration plots with business, cultural, residential and public recreational functions. The site soil technical assessment developed by the Shanghai Soil Remediation Centre was guidance for the urban regeneration and financial processes. 

The national “Soil Pollution Prevention Action Plan” (2016) and Soil Pollution Prevention Law (2019) marked the soil pollution prevention policy foundation on national level. In order to improve quality and efficiency of land use, the “Management Regulation of Whole-Life-Cycle Soil Environmental Protection of Civil and Industrial Land in Shanghai” (2016) standardized soil assessment management and application of prevention and treatment technologies. Further mechanism to promote sustainable land lease-transfer market and innovate green finance-investment transformation will be gradually established. 

 

土壤污染是全球各地是一个敏感的问题,在立法和实践管理的方式上,需要地方政府负主要职责和统一多层次的土壤环境管理模式。

面对地区危机和机遇并存的情况,多地和国际政策实践技术交流有多元的价值。2019年5月28日,地域知识课堂在西班牙瓦伦西亚理工大学的测试报告介绍中国土壤污染治理政策实践,对一些国际敏感的环境政策实践问题进行了务实开放的交流。以下是报告的简述。

* 吴健,上海环境科学研究院高级工程师

* 刘小颖,自然颖源设计咨询,中欧土地土壤专家组成员,地域知识课堂发起人和规划师

 

中国土壤污染防治法(SPPL)是一项重要的国家性法律,适用于中国所有的城市、村庄和地区,建立了法律主导的管理和责任技术体系。具体工作由各地政府主要负责,在国家层面上由国务院、生态环境部、农业农村部、自然资源部、住房和城乡建设部、国家林业和草原管理局等有关部门监管。

实际上,在土壤污染法批准之前,土壤污染普查、检测和防治的工作已逐步进行。例如,2005年开始为中国农民提供土壤检测和修复行动补贴。 中国正在积极探讨土壤修复和监测、场地规划解决方案和污染源(生产和回收技术)等各项可持续技术、规划教育和路径解决方案。

在中国,上海世博园区是第一个城市大型棕地更新项目,实现了土壤综合修复,并为中国土壤污染场地修复技术和实践发展的政策指导铺平了道路。在上海的城市中心地带,世博会黄浦江两岸的展览面积有5.28平方公里,75%曾是自19和20世纪以来形成的工业用地,包括造船厂,发电厂,供水厂,钢铁厂,港口机械厂等。为了承诺以“城市,让生活更美好”为主题的2010年上海世博会,上海市政府于2002年决定关闭或拆除和升级这些工业用地,进行博览会相关建设。同时,建立了主要开发机构-上海世博发展集团,以确保环境积极影响,永续城市更新和城市人文发展的承诺。

为上海市生态环境局的法规进程提供技术实践支撑,上海市环境科学研究院设立上海土壤修复中心。根据其2005年的修复评估,在长期和复杂的过程中,有相当部分的场地是污染的棕色地带,主要是重金属,有机污染物和固体废物层的污染。受污染的土壤层有时深至2-4米(城市试验区)。至2008年,该中心完成了超过30万立方米严重污染的土壤的修复,包括在工业硬地固封部分。2010上海世博会成功举办之后,从2012年开始,上海世博发展集团发布了世博园区后续使用的一系列高价值的城市更新项目,用于商业,文化,住宅和公共娱乐用途。上海土壤修复中心开发的地块土壤技术评估得到了指导性应用,

中国国家“土壤污染防治行动计划”(2016年)和“土壤污染防治法”(2019年)的出台标志着国家层面土壤污染防治的政策基础。为了提高土地利用质量和效益,“上海市经营性用地和工业用地全生命周期管理土壤环境保护管理办法”(2016年),将土壤测评管理和防治修复技术应用标准化。进一步促进可持续土地流转市场和创新绿色金融和投资转化的机制也将逐渐建立。

 

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