Multi-Functional Forestry and Agroforestry (Valencia & Mediterranean Forests) 多重功效的森林和农林系统 (瓦伦西亚和地中海森林)

September 30, 2019

 

Forestry research north of Valencia City. Source: NATUREHERIT

 

The world of forestry and agroforestry knows the oldest local and farming eco systems on earth. These Nature Systems offer multi-dimensional, -facet and -adaptable technical solutions to the survival of human societies. 

林业和农林业的世界有着最古老的地方和农业生态系统。这些“自然系统”为人类社会的生存提供“多维度”、“多方面”和“多适应”的技术解决方案。

 

In changing climate and complex situations, forestation and cultivation are finding new solutions in circulating nutrients and water in soils. 

* Prof. Eduardo Rojas Briales, Faculty of Agronomy of UPV, Chairman of the Spanish Board of Foresters, who was Assistant Director General and Head of the Forestry Department at FAO, UN Commissioner General for World Expo Milan 2015. 

 

Image source: Maphill maps (Satellite) | http://www.efncp.org/projects/projects-spain-navarra/

Forestry of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain, is a complex phenomenon regarding challenges in the changing climate. The climate in Spain is getting hotter and dryer, with evident trending of soil erosion and land desertification. Also, forest wild fire occasions rose in recent years drastically, that inquire practical researches and actions in prevention attention and after-fire treatments. 

To prevent fire cases, plantation barriers are widely used in Spain, with different density and species to stop incidental fire in natural ways. Plantation barriers are mostly orange and almonds orchards. In order to improve cultivation livelihood level of the plantation barrier, one of the options is to plant high-quality wine cultivation in mountain areas at 500 m height. 

在变化的地理生态环境中,林业和种植正在寻找循环土壤养分和水分新的解决方案。

* 西班牙森林管理委员会主席,瓦伦西亚理工大学农业经济学院的爱德华·罗哈斯· 布理阿勒教授,曾任联合国粮农组织助理总干事兼林业部主任,及2015年米兰世界博览会的联合国总干事

伊比利亚半岛上的西班牙森林是一个复杂的现象。西班牙的气候变暖,更趋炎热和干燥,有土壤侵蚀和土地荒漠化的综合趋势。森林野火现象近年来也急剧上升,需要在预防和火灾后的恢复方面进行实际研究和行动。

为了防止火灾,西班牙广泛使用不同密度和种类的种植屏障,以自然的方式阻止火灾偶发。种植屏障主要是桔树和杏仁树园。为了提高种植屏障的产业生计水平,罗哈斯教授则提到可在海拔500米左右的山区种植高品质的葡萄种植园。

 

While forest fires increased in Spanish forests, soil education is a major activity with a changing climate. 

* Prof. Jorge Mataix-Solera, President of Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS), Environmental Soil Science Group, Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, Miguel Hernández University (UMH)

 

Image source: Prof. Jorge Mataix-Solera presentation at Landcare, an Erasmus Program of the European Union)

As joint initiative of renowned Spanish scientists in 1947, Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS), member of International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), has now ca. 600 soil, forest and other scientist members that contribute to soil sciences. Besides a wide range of policy, practice and research exchanges, oil education is a major activity of SECS. While forest fires increased in Spanish forests, we developed a participatory education for middle school students to reestablish burned forest zones and prevent new fires. They get opportunities to protect bare soil with mulching, observe and record the soil status and manage the new trees regeneration. The territorial and inter-territorial perspective of Knowledge@Terra is useful in developing the educational materials, lessons and exchanges that reach young and old people, esp. teachers from different geographical locations. 

当西班牙的森林火灾有所增加,随着气候的变化,土壤教育是一项主要的活动。

* 西班牙土壤学会(SECS)主席米格尔·埃尔南德斯大学(UMH)农业化学与环境系土壤环境科学组的约尔格·马塔克斯·索莱拉教授

作为西班牙著名科学家的联合倡议,国际土壤科学联合会成员西班牙土壤科学学会(SECS)拥有约600名土壤、森林和其他对土壤科学作出贡献的科学家成员。除了政策、实践和研究方面的交流外,土壤教育是SECS的一项主要活动。在西班牙森林火灾增加的同时,我们为中学生开展了一项参与式教育,为了重建被烧毁的森林地带,并防止新的火灾。他们有机会用覆盖物保护裸露的土壤,观察和记录土壤状况,并管理更新的树木。地域和跨地域知识观有助于开发面向年轻人和老年人,特别是来自不同地理位置教师的教育材料、课程和交流。

 

In the gradually changing climate of Mediterranean, adaptive forest management is used to evaluate increasing dryness, temperature and wildfire risks on forest health, differing vertical distribution of tree species such as oaks and pines. 

* Prof. Antonio Del Campo head of the Re-ForeST group, Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV)   

 

Image Source, http://cienciagandia.webs.upv.es  NATUREHERIT, Cristina Lull 

As joined efforts by the Re-Forest and soil science group, in a forestry research area north of Valencia City, forest health were recorded and evaluated through species recipe, plant growth, soil quality and forestry density in detail, for coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests aged about 50 years. Impact of climate change on the growing season and subsequent effects of soil water regime are carefully studied. 

The research result shall explain sensitivity of forest threats and the Ecohydrological-Based Forestry Management Method, to give regional and national governmental forestry department and grower companies (farmers) technical solutions and policy advices. Impact of climate change on the growing season and subsequent effects of soil water regime are carefully studied. 

Read more: http://cienciagandia.webs.upv.es/en/2018/02/ecohydrological-based-forest...

在地中海气候逐渐变化的情况下,采用适应性森林管理来评估干旱加剧、气温升高和森林火灾对森林健康的风险,以及橡树和松树等树种的不同垂直分布。

* 瓦伦西亚理工大学(UPV)水与环境工程研究所(IIAMA),Re-ForeST小组负责人安东尼奥·德尔坎布教授
在巴伦西亚市北部的森林研究区,Re-ForeST小组 与土壤科学小组一起,通过植种配方,生长情况,土壤质量和树林密度等数据检测,详细记录和评估了年龄约为50岁的针阔混合林的森林健康,研究气候变化对生长季节的影响以及土壤水分状况的后续影响。

研究结果将得出森林威胁的敏感程度和基于生态水文学的林业管理方法,为地区和国家政府的农业、林业部门等和种植公司(农民)提供技术方案和政策建议。 

 

 

 

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